Transportation of mobility result in a range of costs and benefits.Some of these transports are directly realized by the users: the cost of petrol or rail tickets, or the benefit of working easily by car or train.By paying for fuel or tickets, transportation Users assume a portion of the costs that are due to them.However, there are other costs. These costs are borne by the third party, by the general public, or by future generations. Also See: Maxi Cab
A wide range of scientific disciplines are involved in determining transportation-related losses and costs.For example, we know from medical studies how exhaust fumes and noise affect human health.This can establish the nature and severity of the disease caused by transport. environmental science is also needed to determine the negative effects of transport of pollutants or species of plants and animals.Finally, the effect determined in this way should be determined in the monetary context.A metric, known as the 'value of statistical life' or VOSL, is an important factor when assigning financial value to health losses.It expresses how much a society is willing to pay to prevent death.
Impact of Transport on Environment and Health
External benefits are models of external costs.Some mobility behaviors generate an advantage that relates to the transport user beyond personal gain.This is particularly true of walking, where physical activity benefits health which then positively impacts society: less illness and thus more productive labor, as well as lower health care and social security costs. Also See: MaxiCab
For optimal resource allocation within an economy, external costs and benefits must be internalized.In other words, they should be charged or credited to those who produced them.
Mobility generates other significant costs and benefits for society.
With the exception of the above health benefits, in most cases the benefits are directly felt by transport users, and are thus not classified as external.The Federal Office for Spatial Development is and the Federal Roads Office FEDRO published a comprehensive study on this area in 2006.
The costs of mobility, and the way they are financed, are presented in detail in the publication of the Federal Statistical Office titled Costen und Fingenijring des Verkehrs ('Costs and Financing of Transportation'). Draw The cost of publishing and financing the transportation is based on the calculation of external costs and benefits.
Cost of congestion.
The cost of congestion, and especially the cost of the time that users of motorized road transport lose each other in traffic jams, is also relevant at the macroeconomic level.These costs determine the amount of time loss that is actually suffering.In addition, congestion causes environmental, climate, energy, and accident-related costs.These are already included in the calculation of external costs stated above.The cost of individual congestion is calculated and published periodically.More efficient use of traffic infrastructure and thus better capacity utilization can help. reduce these considerable costs of the Swiss economy, through various measures to remove peaks in traffic volumes.